By the term, “ingrown nail„ refers to the nail plate in the lateral ingrown nail furrow and subsequent inflammation.
When the cuticle develop painful cracks and start infections frequently, it can lead to ingrown nail. In case of a bacterial infection, localizes inflammation and granulation tissue develops very often. Ingrown nails usually occurs on the great toe, less to the other toes. The main cause is improper nail cutting – cloves are cut or injure round in the tip of the nail (develops so called mechanical nail stress).
As the cutting edge of the nail does not grow out of the nail bed, it grows to the nail bed. The lateral pressure on the nail plate are also leading narrow shoes, which develops because of an inflammation to the nail furrow. Sometimes ingrown nail develop after nail wedge resection (Emmet`operation) with the remaining segment of the nail acts mechanically lateral to the nail furrow.
Treatment: The nail plate is placed under the small ends of the twisted cotton rolls soaked in a disinfectant solution as long as the nail plate grows up again out of the nailfurrow. After Emmet`operation used to prevent the so-called ingrown nail clamp technique. To a greater or lesser extent, there is also the phenomenon of ingrown nail tissue granulation case of latent diabetes mellitus streptococcal toe infection. Ingrown nail encourage further excessive sweating of hands and feet, and limited growth of the nail length. Ingrown nails occurs mostly in males aged 12-16 years . The treatment is the same as for treatment of ingrown nail, but here also be added to the treatment of concomitant diseases.
Ingrown nail can cause a number of diseases
1)Nailfoundation vaulting (exostosis). There will usually nail bed side parts of the inflammation, swelling, and dark red colour. Occurs sharp pain. The disease is diagnosed radiographically, as it is important here to turn off the tumor.
2 )Tumors that are located under fingernails. Bowen’s disease usually affects the thumb or big toe. There will be more elderly people and mostly unilateral. Diagnosis is often delayed, because of it delayes treatment and lesion occurs – mild redness and lateral part of the nail onycholysis (nail decomposition). Later, may develop into squamous cell skin cancer, treatment consists of surgical removal of the entire lesion and subsequent histological investigation. Acral lentigious melanoma occurs most often either on the thumb or on a big toe nail mostly has gray color and up to blackishbrown, tumor spreads both horizontally and vertically – infiltrated lesions. On a nail mechanical stress causes more superficial ulcers or ulceration.
3)Subungual wart (verruca vulgaris). Typically, they will develop on nailwalls the lateral growth of the event can grow in the nail bed, causing partial onycholysis. There will be a consequence of the oppression of the nail grows and can cause pain below the bone erosion (superficial ulcer).
4) Subungual keratoacanthoma. Is rare painful tumor that develops in the side of the nail, causing onycholysis (destruction of the nail plate) and less than an arbitrary bone destruction (cleavage).
5)Under the nail plate can occur angiomyoneuroma. It is rare, occurring mainly in young people and is often familial. A tumor of approximately 5 mm. Purple hard nodules in diameter, or violet, under suppression painful. Tumors can occur anywhere in the body, mucous membranes and even internal organs. For the treatment of this type of tumor is needed vascular surgical removal. Sometimes relapse may occur (neogenesis).
6 ) Subungual enchondroma. Similar to nailfoundation vaulting (exostosis). The treatment is a surgical.